<body><script type="text/javascript"> function setAttributeOnload(object, attribute, val) { if(window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', function(){ object[attribute] = val; }, false); } else { window.attachEvent('onload', function(){ object[attribute] = val; }); } } </script> <div id="navbar-iframe-container"></div> <script type="text/javascript" src="https://apis.google.com/js/plusone.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript"> gapi.load("gapi.iframes:gapi.iframes.style.bubble", function() { if (gapi.iframes && gapi.iframes.getContext) { gapi.iframes.getContext().openChild({ url: 'https://www.blogger.com/navbar.g?targetBlogID\x3d9290871\x26blogName\x3d++::+GALLERY+::\x26publishMode\x3dPUBLISH_MODE_BLOGSPOT\x26navbarType\x3dSILVER\x26layoutType\x3dCLASSIC\x26searchRoot\x3dhttp://netgallery.blogspot.com/search\x26blogLocale\x3den_US\x26v\x3d2\x26homepageUrl\x3dhttp://netgallery.blogspot.com/\x26vt\x3d-799854796482506096', where: document.getElementById("navbar-iframe-container"), id: "navbar-iframe" }); } }); </script>

:: GALLERY ::

Saturday, January 01, 2005

PLEISTOCENE FOSSILS and forum



Fossilized Woolly Mammoth, common name for several extinct species of the elephant family. Fossilized Whooly Mammoth had long, curved tusks that reached a length of about 3 m (about 10.5 ft), and a prominent hump on the back. Those that lived in cold climates had a shaggy covering of long, thick hair.




::  VISIT THE GALLERY FOR UNIQUE CHESS TOOLS & COLLECTABLES::




These animals moved northward as the glaciers of the Ice Age receded. The first Fossilized Woolly Mammoths appeared in Africa during the early Pliocene Epoch, about 5 million years ago. The first North American Fossilized Woolly Mammoths migrated across the Bering Strait from Asia into Alaska during a period of low sea level about 2 million years ago. By the Beginning of the Pleistocene Epoch, about 1.6 million years ago, mammoths inhabited North America, Europe, and Asia. Scientists believe that most Fossilized Woolly Mammoths had died out toward the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, about 11,000 years ago, although scientists have found the remains of dwarf Fossilized Woolly Mammoths that survived until around 3,700 years ago on Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean.

The largest Fossilized Woolly Mammoths, such as the steppe mammoth (Mammuthus trogontherii), lived in Eurasian wooded and meadowlike habitats.
Adult males stood about 5 m (about 16 ft) high at the shoulders, weighed up to 18 metric tons, and had tusks up to 5 m (16 ft) long.

The woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), characterized by a thick hairy coat that helped it to adapt to its cold tundra environment, was plentiful in northern regions during the late Pleistocene Epoch.

The woolly mammoth was about the size of the modern Asian elephant, about 3 m (10 ft) tall at the shoulders. The smallest known Fossilized Whooly Mammothh (Mammuthus lamarmorae) was less than 1.5 m (5 ft) tall and lived on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia during the late Pleistocene Epoch. The first complete specimen of a frozen Fossilized Whooly Mammoth was unearthed near the Lena River in Siberia in 1806 by Russian botanist Mikhail Adams.
Since then a number of mammoth specimens have been discovered in Siberia, Europe, and North America, including one of the largest species identified to date, the American Fossilized Whooly Mammoth (Mammuthus imperator), which reached a height of 4.3 m (14 ft).


Scientists first extracted the genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from mammoth remains in 1978. In the early 1980s scientists studying blood samples from Fossilized Whooly Mammoth remains found that mammoth blood is more similar to Asian elephants’ than to African elephants’. In 1999 scientists working in Siberia recovered the complete remains of a Fossilized Whooly Mammoth embedded in frozen mud containing plants and insects that lived 20,000 years ago. Using a helicopter, the scientists transported the specimen to an ice cave about 300 km (200 mi) away.

Scientists plan to slowly thaw their find and perform tests on the remains to identify the reason the animal died. They also plan to study the plants and insects found in the frozen mud encasing the carcass to learn more about the environment the animal lived in.

The Fossilized Woolly Mammoth (mammuthus primigenius) ranged throughout North America, Asia and Europe between 12,000 and 40,000 years ago.

It had several cousins, many of whom, including the smaller mastodon (see below for comparison), are now extinct. Present day elephants and the aquatic manatee are also relations. No one knows for sure why the mammoth died out, but experts suspect it was a combination of climactic change, which reduced the feeding range, and hunting pressure by our early ancestors.


Fossilized Woolly Mammoth tusks were large teeth, made of ivory (dentin), with a protective layer of cementum. They were used for defense, dominance, mating rituals, and may have served as snowplows, clearing the ground for winter-feeding.

Fossilized Woolly Mammoth ivory is distinguishable from other ivory by its characteristically unique, oblique crosshatched pattern, evident when polished. In cross section, the tusk has three layers: bark (cementum), body and core (dentin).

The bark is thin and darkly coloured. It can be polished and is occasionally used in jewelry. The body is the primary material used for carving.

It is uniform and thick, enabling high relief or sculpture in the round. It can hold incredible detail and take a high polish. The core, made of new growth ivory, is of inconsistent quality.

Neanderthal hands created the oldest known sculpture made from mammoth ivory 100,000 years ago. Fossilized Woolly Mammoth ivory has continued in use as a carving medium, long after the extinction of the Fossilized Woolly Mammoth, up to the present.

Fossilized Woolly Mammoth or Mastadon? Mastodons appeared some 20-30 million years go in what is now Egypt. Fossilized Whooly Mammoth did not show up in Africa until 3-4 million years ago.

Fossilized Whooly Mammoth teeth are big and blocky for grinding grass; mastodon teeth are more pointy suited for chomping softer swamp, wetlands plants.

A Fossilized Woolly Mammoth's trunk had two projections, one in front and one in back, probably to help it grasp food. No mastodon trunks have been found.

Fossilized Woolly Mammoth have distinctly sloping backs making shoulders higher than rear quarters, like modern Asian elephants; mastodons have straight backs. Mastodons generally had 20 pairs of ribs, the same as African elephants.

Fossilized Woolly Mammoths had 19 pairs of ribs, the same as modern Asian elephants.

A Fossilized Woolly Mammoth's skull is broader and less exaggerated in shape with a single dome, similar to that of an African elephant. Mastodon hides are generally described as brownish-grey; Fossilized Woolly Mammoth skin specimens have been found with black, brown, reddish-brown and yellow hair.

Fossilized Woolly Mammoth tusks as long as 3.5 metres have been found in Siberia. That is longer than the modern African elephant and more than twice the tusk size of an Asian elephant. Mastodon tusks were roughly the same size as an African elephant's.Mastodons were shorter. The tallest ever found was about three metres high at the shoulders.




::  VISIT THE GALLERY FOR UNIQUE CHESS TOOLS & COLLECTABLES::




Fossilized Woolly Mammoths typically ranged from 2.7 to 3.3 metres in height, although some four-metre tall specimens have been found, comparable to African elephants.

A dwarf species of Fossilized Woolly Mammoth managed to survive the Ice Age on Wrangel Island off the coast of Siberia, dying out about the time the Egyptians were building the pyramids. Mastodons became extinct 9,000 years ago, about the same time as most other mammoth species.

Fossilized Woolly Mammoths and mastodons largest known mammals to live in NA.Other Facts about the Fossilized Woolly Mammoth ranged from Ireland to eastern North America.Its ears were much smaller than the elephant's, likely to save heat.

A nomadic group of humans, known as the Clovis, hunted the mammoth in Siberia and the Americas. One theory says they were a factor in the Fossilized Woolly Mammoth's exinction.

The oldest Fossilized Woolly Mammoth found to date lived 250,000 years ago.


An adult Fossilized Woolly Mammoth weighed about 10 tons and stood at the shoulder at least twice the height of a human.

Gestation period for the Fossilized Woolly Mammoth is estimated to be 22 months. Fossilized Whooly Mammoth lived to be about 60 years.Arctic peoples believed that mammoths were a kind of subterranean mole that lived until exposed to light.

The Gwitchin peoples of Old Crow have a story about a creature that burst from the bank of the Porqupine River, close to the present day community, and wandered up river and died.
Palentologists, after hearing the story, found the remains of a Fossilized Woolly Mammoth where the creature was said to have died.
So much Fossilized Woolly Mammoth ivory was left behind in northern Asia that a trade in fossilized mammoth tusks, dating back to the Middle Ages, continues in Russia today.



MAMMOTH IVORY

Fossil Ivory Carved Prehistoric Fossil
Woolly Mammoth Ivory


Among the treasures hidden for thousands of years in the remote Arctic tundra of Alaska, Canada and Siberia are the massive ivory tusks of the Fossilized Whooly Mammoth, ruler of the prehistoric savanna.

Larger than today's Indian elephant, their tusks could weigh up to 300 pounds each and measure over 16 feet in length.

These great beasts ultimately succumbed to the drastic climate changes accompanying great ice ages. The skeletons and tusks were naturally interred for aeons in the frozen earth.

Rythmos Creative Advisory now brings
this hidden treasure to you as a beautiful gem.

These massive tusks are unearthed many ways. Modern day gold miners dredge up mineralized remains in the course of placer mining activities. We unearth fossil ivory during road construction. Bush pilots spot the huge tusks jutting from ever eroding river banks while flying over the tundra.

Wilderness explorers find the tusks in the melting muskeg. Regardless of the happy surprise of discovery, all of our ivory is mined in accordance with all applicable regulations.

The beautiful hues of tan, brown and blue are a result of thousands of years of mineralization.

Exact hues depend upon the mineral deposits in the immediate soil surrounding the fallen Fossilized Whooly Mammoth. Thus, when processing, each tusk reveals a unique character, never duplicated in another piece of fossil tusks.

International trade in elephant ivory has been largely shut down due to concern for the preservation of a living species.

Much to the delight of fine jewelry collectors, Fossilized Woolly Mammoth ivory has emerged as an eco-friendly and increasingly valuable alternative.

While still scarce and difficult to work with, this lustrous natural ivory possesses the same gem qualities of new ivory, without the stigma attached to illegal harvesting of endangered elephants.

Rythmos Creative Advisory searches out these prized fossils to transform the ancient ivory into lustrous jewelry that reflect the hues of the Arctic landscape.

Our skilled european craftsmen of The Mammoth Soceity Ltd. (Netsuke Process), an internationally recognized center for ivory carving, carefully work with the fragile tusks.

Each item is painstakingly designed, carved, polished and finished to enhance the unique color of our Arctic Ivory.

As with all fine gem quality ivory, the luster is enhanced with frequent exposure to one's natural skin oils, developing a rich patina over time.


Fossilized Whooly Mammoth Ivory is one of those tricky handle materials. Use sharp belts, do not let it overheat or even get slightly hot during any operation.

- It cracks. Use sharp drill bits.

- If it overheats during drilling, your pin will have a nice brown ring around it.

- If it overheats during buffing you will get a myriad surface cracks.

- It dries out after you completed the knife and cracks while lying in your customer's safe.

-
It cracks while lying in your store-room.

- Coat any piece of ivory you acquire with baby oil or coconut oil.

- Do the same with your ivory stock at least three time a year, and tell your customers who buys ivory handled knives to do the same.

- I do not know how this oil treatment affects scrimshaw.


Will find out and give the info here. Apparently this depends on the type of ink or paint used by the scrimshander. If the used waterproof inks, oil will not have an effect on the design.





::  VISIT THE GALLERY FOR UNIQUE CHESS TOOLS & COLLECTABLES::




Elephant


Not for import, export or having to much of without a permit.

Because of cites who have not seen the damage elephants cause to the veld.

Ivory is divided into two classes:

A) bark
B) center.

Bark ivory has a fine crosshatch pattern when viewed from the end. It is the outer layer or bark of the tusk.

Center ivory is pure white and featureless.


This is the one to use if hard material.



Hippo

Two types of teeth: Straight incisors that are quite nice to work with, and curved incisors that have an outer coating made of glass or diamonds Whatever it is, it is extremely hard.

It actually makes sparks on the grinder! It is very rare to find a hippo tusk without severe cracks.

Warthog

This African Beauty carries four incisors.

The top two are curved upwards and may be up to 14" in length, the bottom two are useless from a knifemaking point of view but quite critical if you are being chased by a warthog as they have a razor sharp knife edge.

Like horns, the tusks of the warthog are symmetrical.

Use as a pair. To illustrate: Place the two tusks on the table as they would fit the hog.

The front half of each tusk is used on one knife, the back half is used on another knife. By half I mean that the tusk should be split along the length.

This way the color and pattern on both slabs are closely matched.

The moment you acquire a pair of warthog tusks you must mark them as a pair. Then fill the nerve hole with baby or coconut oil, and paint the rest of the tusk with the same oil. This is to prevent it cracking as it dries out.

It is a good idea to coat your whole ivory stock at least three times a year with baby oil.

The beautiful hues of tan, brown and blue are a result of thousands of years of mineralization. Exact hues depend upon the mineral deposits in the immediate soil surrounding the fallen Fossilized Whooly Mammoth.

Thus, when processing, each tusk reveals a unique character, never duplicated in another piece of fossil tusks.International trade in elephant ivory has been largely shut down due to concern for the preservation of a living species.

Much to the delight of fine jewelry collectors, fossil mammoth ivory has emerged as an eco-friendly and increasingly valuable alternative.

While still scarce and difficult to work with, this lustrous natural ivory possesses the same gem qualities.

Rythmos Creative Advisory searches out these prized fossils to transform the ancient ivory into lustrous jewelry that reflect the hues of the Arctic landscape.

Our skilled craftsmen in Russia (Netsuke process), an internationally recognized center for ivory carving, carefully work with the fragile tusks.

Each item is painstakingly designed, carved, polished and finished to enhance the unique color of our Arctic Ivory.

As with all fine gem quality ivory, the luster is enhanced with frequent exposure to one's natural skin oils, developing a rich patina over time.

*****

Prices Fossilized mammoth ivory
(Incl. insured door to door Air-mail, excl. surcharges if any).
(Rythmos Creative Advisory commissions exclusively to the Mammoth Society Ltd.)

Consignments may differ in price.
However, usually the range of the prices is as follows:

I Grade - $120-$100/kg.
II Grade - $90-$80/kg.
III Grade - $70-$60/kg.
IV grade - $40-$30/kg.
V Grade - $30/kg
In particular cases (special delivery)
the price for Fossilized Woolly Mammoth ivory may differ.


The price for non-cut Fossilized Woolly Mammoth tusks:

I Grade - $180/kg.
II Grade - $140/kg.
III Grade - $110/kg.
IV Grade - $110/kg.
V Grade - $100/kg.

* High-grade ivory
Must be reserved.

* Museum tusks
Our complete mammoth tusks are fascinating conversation pieces as well as fine collectibles. These are the remains of life from the Ice Age. We have small tusks that can be displayed on a writing-table as well huge 2,5 meter tusks that require much exhibition room.

* Bark ivory
Bark is the outside of the tusk that has absorbed minerals from the earth where it was buried. Blue Bark is highly prized by knifemakers and scrimshanders for its colorations.

* Low-grade ivory
Low-grade ivory has many cracks and is used for jewelry and other small items.

* Mammoth teeth
All our Mammoth Teeth come from the permafrost of Yakutsk region. Preserved in the frozen earth, they have a better condition than of those from the North Sea.

* Mammoth bones
Mammoth bones which are incompete or damaged, is a relatively inexpensive material for carving.

* Complete (museum) Skeletons
Woolly Mammoth, Woolly Rhinoceros, Steppe Bison, Cave lion (Penthera Leo Atrox), Cave Bear, and other pleistocene fossils are available for immediate purchase.



::  VISIT THE GALLERY FOR UNIQUE CHESS TOOLS & COLLECTABLES::



Import Regulations

A frequently encountered misconception is that all ivory is "illegal" indicated by that oft heard phrase "I thought ivory was illegal". NOT!

The following is a summary of the international Fish & Wildlife laws which regulate the commerce of ivory: The international trade in wildlife and plants is regulated by the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (C.I.T.E.S.) [a multinational protege of the United Nations]. Formed in 1973, the aim is to establish worldwide controls over plants & wildlife that require protecting due to declining populations.
Headquartered in Switzerland, C.I.T.E.S., delegates meet every two years to review data & set new quotas to increase, decrease or maintain the level of protection on individual species. C.I.T.E.S. regulations do not control a country's internal commerce, only the international trade between member nations.



International Shipments



Europe:
No permit required for Fossilized Woolly Mammoth, Rythmos Creative Advisory will arrange declaration-formalities on behalf of the producer.

United States of America
All orders of oosik, walrus, fossil walrus, hippo or warthog ivory that are to be shipped out of the U. S. require a re-export permit which costs $30 per shipment and takes 30-45 days to acquire (considerably less time than they used to).


Elephant ivory is not exportable (except dated before the ban).

Fossilized Whooly Mammoth and mastodon ivories do not require a permit.

Unfortunately we do not have the space to review individual country wildlife laws. Each country has a Department of Fish & Wildlife or Game Department located your country. We recommend that you check with your country game officials before buying wildlife products for resale (private ownership is not restricted).



Mammoth or Mastodon Different animals, different looking tusks, the cut ivory can look nearly the same. Commerce in this 10,000-40,000 year old ivory is completely unrestricted.

A great deal of this ivory in cut form looks practically identical to elephant ivory (except for the outer layer where all the color and weathering is).

The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Forensics Laboratory has discovered a reliable indicator for differentiating between prehistoric mammoth and modern elephant ivory.

Color is no indication; it is the angle that the cross grain lines bisect themselves. Angles of less than 90% indicate that it's mammoth/mastodon, angles greater than 120% show that it's elephant.


The Fossilized Woolly Rhino



::  VISIT THE GALLERY FOR UNIQUE CHESS TOOLS & COLLECTABLES::











 ::  WWF.ORG  ::  Please donate when appropriate ::


Rythmos Creative Advisory

commissions exclusively to The Mammoth Society Ltd !!



::  VISIT THE GALLERY FOR UNIQUE CHESS TOOLS & COLLECTABLES::




*****

Forum for specialized
theme's in reference to
The Fossilized Woolly Mammoth,


We refer to the - Contact page- for an
overview of all three active open and moderated forums









M. Veneman
Rythmos Creative Advisory
The Netherlands

ChessEarthDotInfo

Enquire for large scale pictures
and
supplementary designs.

We are pleased to accept your order.


OFFICE@CHESSEARTH.INFO :: Email Protection by Name Intelligence






By pressing the *Traffic Mail* icon you can sent this article to your, or a friend's email address!! Easy to store your own chess references (press memorandum) or vitrines from the Gallery. The information you provide on this form will not be used for anything other than sending the email to you, or your friend. This feature is not to be used for advertising or self-promotion. Press the yellow square (left) and do not forget to save your memo. Leave your public remarks and your URL at the ShoutBox. Also visit the three Groups listed below and return to the current chapter with the return button !!

You may browse more articles from this chapter at the "Overview Articles" above. [<< BACK:] To Current chapter


  ::  !!!! !!!! !!!! !!!! BANKING WITH INTEREST PAYMENTS !!!! !!!! !!!! !!!!::